为什么动物权益维权人士反对AKC

更新于2018年7月22日
狗在比赛中由法官检查。
苹果树屋/盖蒂图片社

普瑞纳狗食品公司 在他们的网站上列出了两个主要的狗秀:威斯敏斯特狗秀和国家狗秀。除了这些节目, 美国养犬俱乐部, AKC,还列出了 构象事件 under their supervision. 的se shows are about finding a member of each 纯 breed who conforms to the AKC 标准 of what they consider the perfect specimen of a breed. 动物权益 维权人士并没有歧视他们想要保护的动物。他们的号召力始终是,他们不仅为可爱而蓬松的动物而战,而且为任何物种的任何动物而战,因为他们相信所有动物都有权不受人类的侵害和束缚。

那么,为什么动物权利活动家会瞄准AKC?这个组织似乎非常关心狗的福利。

For one, the AKC issues “papers” on any 纯bred dog, which is a big problem for animal rights activists seeking to stop the sale of puppies from puppy mills. When the retailer shrieks about how their puppies are all “AKC Purebreds” it makes it difficult to convince consumers that any puppy, no matter where s/he was born, will get an AKC pedigree. That doesn'不要让幼犬更健康或更理想,尤其是在宠物商店购买幼犬时。

什么 is a Dog Show?

各种俱乐部在世界各地组织犬展。在美国,最负盛名的狗展是由美国养犬俱乐部举办的。在AKC狗展上,狗是根据一套称为"standard" that is unique to each recognized breed. A dog can be disqualified completely for certain deviations from the 标准. For example, the 标准 for an Afghan Hound includes a height requirement of “27 inches, plus or minus one inch; bitches, 25 inches, plus or minus one inch,"重量要求为“约60磅;母狗,约50磅。" 的re are also precise requirements for their gait, coat, and the size and shape of the head, tail, and body. As for temperament, an Afghan Hound found with “sharpness or shyness” is faulted and loses points because they should be “aloof and dignified, yet gay.” 的 dog does not even have the liberty to choose his own personality. Some 标准s even require certain breeds to be mutilated in order to compete. 的ir tails must be 停靠 和他们的耳架手术重建。

Ribbons, trophies, and points are awarded to the dogs who most closely match the 标准 for their breed. As dogs accumulate points, they can attain champion status and qualify for higher level shows, culminating in the annual Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show. Only 纯bred, intact (not spayed or neutered) dogs are allowed to compete. 的 purpose of these points and shows is to ensure that only the finest specimens of the breeds be allowed to procreate, thereby bettering the breed with each new generation. 

育种问题

狗展最明显的问题是它们鼓励直接和间接繁殖。如美国养犬俱乐部的解释's 网站,

"散养或绝育的狗不符合参加狗展的构象类别的资格,因为狗展的目的是评估种畜。"

节目创造了一种文化基础 配种追求冠军,展示和出售狗。拥有三到四百万只猫狗 在庇护所遇难 每年,我们需要的最后一件事就是繁殖。

信誉良好或负责任的繁殖者会在购买过程中的任何时间取回购买者不想要的任何狗'他们的生活,有人认为他们并没有助长人口过多,因为所有的狗都被通缉了。

对于动物权益维权人士, 负责任的饲养员 这是一个矛盾,因为任何育种者都不负责任地控制种群,事实上, 负责任的 for the births and deaths of unwanted dogs. If fewer people bred their dogs, there would be fewer dogs for sale and more people would adopt from shelters. Breeders also create a demand for the dogs and their breed through advertising and by simply by putting them on the market. Furthermore, not everyone who wants to surrender a 纯bred dog will return to the breeder. Approximately 25% of shelter dogs are 纯bred.

AKC网站列表 繁殖救援团体 不是关于收养或救狗,而是关于"information about the 纯bred rescue."该页面上的任何内容都不会促进收养或营救狗。他们鼓励救援人员的页面没有鼓励收养和救援,而是尝试将公众重定向到其育种者搜索页面,育种者推荐页面以及在线育种者分类。

Every dog purchased from a breeder or pet store is a vote for more 配种 and a death sentence for a dog in a shelter. While dog show participants care about the welfare of their dogs, they seem to care little about the millions of dogs who are not theirs. As one AKC judge stated, “If it’s not a 纯bred dog, it’s a mutt, and 杂种 are worthless.”

纯种狗

动物权益 activists object to promoting 纯bred dogs, not only because it encourages 配种 and 近交, but also because it implies these dogs are more desirable than others. Without dog shows, there would be less of a demand for dogs who have a certain pedigree or conform to an artificial set of physical specifications that are considered ideal for each breed.

As breeders strive to meet the 标准 for their breed, 近交 is common and expected. Breeders know that if a certain desirable trait runs through a bloodline, 配种 two blood relatives who have that trait will bring out that trait. However, 近交 还加剧了其他特征,包括健康问题。

研究 建议"mutts"被认为是所有人中最健康的。然而,已知纯种具有 健康问题, either due to 近交 or due to the very 标准s of the breed. Brachycephalic breeds such as bulldogs cannot mate or give birth naturally because of breathing issues. Female bulldogs must be artificially inseminated and give birth via C-section. Flat-Coated Retrievers are prone to cancer, and half of all Cavalier King Charles Spaniels suffer from mitral valve disease.

Because of their breed 标准s and the need to categorize dogs into different breeds and groups, dog shows give the impression that 纯bred dogs are more desirable than mixed-breed dogs. Even the word "pure" in "purebred" implies something disturbing, and some activists have equated breed 标准s with racism and eugenics in humans. 动物权益 activists believe that every dog, no matter their breed or 健康问题, should be valued and cared for. No animal is worthless. All animals have worth.

本文的更新和部分撰写者 动物权利专家Michelle A. Rivera。